As you know cell is basic structural and functional unit of life. All organisms from bacteria to blue whale are made of cells. Basically there are two types of cells;Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic.
In prokaryote, pro means (first formed) karyote means (nucleus): Genetic material, DNA is not surrounded by a membrane or it is scattered in the cytoplasm. Eg: bacteria
In Eu (true) karyote( nucleus) : Genetic material DNA is surrounded by a nuclear membrane. The other major difference is the present of organelles like mitochondria, golgi apparatus etc in eukaryotes or division of labour is there. Imagination is the key in understanding this wonderful minute structure that make us alive. Here we are going to compare a Eukaryotic cell to a factory.
A cell uses various materials and produces many products for the survival just like a factory
In a factory there are different sections; organelles can be compared to different sections of a factory
1) Nucleus: is comparable to the headquarters of a factory where managers will give timely instruction for the smooth running of the factory. It is separated from the rest of factory especially working area. Inside cell, nucleus is the instruction centre, where instruction for the synthesis of products or proteins is coded. It is protected by a nuclear membrane, ensuring its protection from the rest of the cell.
3) Mitochondrion: It is the power house of the cell providing energy for all cell activities. In a factory it is the main electric station in the factory where energy or electric current is supplied to different stations in the factory for day to day activities.
4) Endoplasmic reticulum: (First production site) It is the immediate site to the headquarters where the products are produced. Products are to modified or polished before release. RER has ribosomes (workers) on the surface responsible for protein synthesis (products). It has continuous connection with the nuclear membrane.
5) Chloroplast present only in plant cell where food is produced just like ‘kitchen’ or food production centre in the factory. The process is called photosynthesis.
6) Golgi apparatus: It is the ‘sorting centre of the cell’ where proteins are chemically tagged to reach the correct location. In factory, it is the site where products are classified and addressed.
7) Vesicles: Proteins are transported to the correct destinations by vesicles. In factory, the packaging and transportation of products to the exit site.
8) Cell membrane: It is the ‘wall’ or boundary of the cell and has specialized channel for entry and exit guarded by proteins. Just like factory compound wall and the guarded gate.
9) Lysosome: incinerator of the cell where waste materials are disposed and degraded