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List of Model Organisms - Mammalian and Non Mammalian Model Organisms

Characteristics of Model Organism                                                            MCQ on Model Organism

    Mammalian and Non Mammalian Model Organisms
    I. Mammalian Models
    Mus musculus (Mouse)

    • Classic model vertebrate
    • The common house is most closely related to humans and it is easily kept and bred in the laboratory. Thousands of different genetic strains are have been developed.
    • Transgenic and Knockout mice are helpful for the improvement of molecular and genetic studies
    • Knockout mice: Mice, born as a result of a series of experimental procedures, that are lacking a functional gene that would normally contain.
    • Most widely used in quantitative genetics studies.
    Rattus norvegicus (Rat)
      Rat Mainly as a toxicology model and also used in many physiological studies related to cardiac, pulmonary circulation, metabolism, neurological control, hypertension and signal transduction.

        II. Non-Mammalian Models
                                  Escherichia coli (E.coli)
        • Rod shaped bacterium
        • Lives in the digestive tract of humans and other animals.
        • Many of the basic molecular biology area like DNA replication, transcription, and translation, was originally worked on this prokaryotic organism.

          Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Yeast)
          • Eukaryote,Unicellular fungus
          • Widely used in genetics and cytology studies.
          • It can be grown under aerobic or anaerobic conditions
          • Exists in the diploid and haploid stages
          • Many biochemical variants
          • Small Genome encoding about 6200 proteins
          • Economically important organism.
            Caenorhabditis elegans (C.elegans)
            C. elegans
            • Microscopic nematode
            • Excellent model for Physiology and developmental studies
            • Transparent body wall
            • Short generation time
            • Comprises exactly 959 cells ( During the worm's development, 1090 cells are formed of which 131 are removed by apoptosis).
            • In 2002 Nobel Prize awarded to Brenner, Horvitz and John Sulston for studies of the genetic regulaion of C.elegans development.

              Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly)
              • The organism is well suited for the study of the molecular biology of development and neurological basis of behaviour.
              • Giant chromosome
              • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1933: Thomas Hunt Morgan
              • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1995 was awarded jointly to Edward B. Lewis, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard and Eric F. Wieschaus "for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development".
                  Danio rerio (Zebra fish)
                  Zebra fish
                  • A freshwater fish
                  • Model used for the development and toxicological studies.

                      Plant Model: Arabidopsis thaliana
                      • A member of Brassica family (mustard)
                      • Arabidopsis has a small genome (120 million base pairs) relative to other plants
                      • It is easily grown under laboratory conditions
                      • Short generation tome
                      • Large seed production
                      • Systematic studies of Arabidopsis will offer important advantages for basic research in genetics and molecular biology.

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