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Handshake Problem Simple Formula and Practice Problem

"Hand Shake Problem" is a very common question in many competitive exams such as CSIR in the Aptitude part questions. Here we are discussing a simple formula for answering this question.
Watch this two minute video or refer the questions below
Practice Problems
1. In a group of 11 persons, each shakes hand with every other once and only once. What is the total number of such handshakes? (CSIR DEC, 2018)
This is the formula

Handshake Problem Simple Formula

Answer: Total No of hand shakes (T)= n(n-1)/2
                                No of persons n=11
N=11 (11-1)/2
Answer: 55 handshakes

2. If there are 10 football teams in a tournament, how many games must be played in order for each team to play every other team exactly once? (same pattern question in a different context)
Answer: No of games= n(n-1)/2
N=10 (10-1)/2
=10x9/2=90/2=45 games
Use this formula for answering any questions of this pattern
Thank you so much and best wishes for your exam
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CSIR UGC NET Life Sciences June 2019 Exam Paper Pattern Part A, B and C Questions

The csirhrdg has announced the notification of Exam to be held on June 2019.
Here biologyexams4u team prepares a 10 minute short video on exam pattern with a solved sample question from part A, B and C. Get familiar with the question pattern and also sharing some tips and tricks for answering questions from my experience. 
Best Wishes for your exam
"Don't stop when you are tired, stop when you are done"
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CSIR UGC NET Life Sciences December 2018 cut off marks and Result

The csirhrdg has announced the cutoff marks of Exam held in December 2018. See the figure
For Results Click this link CSIR UGC NET LIfe sciences result Dec 2018.

CSIR UGC NET Life Sciences December 2018 cut off marks
Best wishes for everyone
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CSIR UGC NET JRF 2019 Notification June

CSIR will hold   the Joint CSIR-UGC Test on 17th June, 2019 for determining the eligibility of the Indian National  candidates for the award of Junior Research Fellowships (JRF) and for determining eligibility for appointment of  Lecturers (NET) in certain subject areas falling under the faculty of Science & Technology. The award of Junior Research  Fellowship (JRF) to the successful eligible candidates will depend on their finding admission/placement in a university/  national laboratory/ institution of higher learning and research, as applicable.
CSIR UGC NET JRF June2018 Notification

Exam DateCSIR-UGC JRF NET :16th June, 2019.

Age Limit & Relaxation:
  • For Junior Research Fellowships  (JRF):Maximum 28 years as on 01-01-2019 (upper age limit may be relaxed up to 5 years in case of candidates belonging to SC/ST/OBC, Physically handicapped/Visually handicapped and female applicants).
  • For LS (NET): No upper age limit.
    Educational Qualification:
    • BS-4 years program/BE/BTech/BPharma/MBBS/Integrated BS-MS/MSc or equivalent degree with at least 55% marks for general and OBC (50% for SC/ST candidates, physically and Visually Handicapped candidates).
    • Candidates enrolled for M.Sc or having completed 10+2+3 years of the above qualifying examination are also eligible to apply in the above subject under the Result Awaited (RA) category on the condition that they complete the qualifying degree with requisite percentage of marks within the validity period of two years to
      avail the fellowship from the effective date of award.
      Such candidates will have to submit the attestation format (Given at the reverse of the application form) duly certified by the Head of the Department/Institute from where the candidate is appearing or has appeared.
    • BSc (Hons) or equivalent degree holders or students enrolled in Integrated MS-PhD program with at least 55% marks for general and OBC candidates; 50% marks for SC/ST candidates, physically and visually handicapped candidates are also eligible to apply.Candidates with bachelor’s degree, whether Science, engineering or any other discipline, will be eligible for fellowship only after getting registered/enrolled for PhD/Integrated PhD program within the validity period of two years.
    • The eligibility for lectureship of NET qualified candidates will be subject to fulfilling the criteria laid down by UGC. PhD degree holders who have passed Master’s degree prior to 19th September 1991, with at least 50% marks are eligible to apply for Lectureship only.
    The question paper shall be divided into three parts, (A, B & C) as per syllabus & Scheme of Exam.
    Part 'A' shall be common to all subjects including Engineering Sciences. This part shall contain questions pertaining to General Aptitude with emphasis on logical reasoning, graphical analysis, analytical and numerical ability, quantitative comparison, series formation, puzzles etc.
    Part 'B' shall contain subject-related conventional Multiple Choice questions (MCQs), generally covering the topics given in the syllabus.
    Part 'C' shall contain higher value questions that may test the candidate's knowledge of scientific concepts and/or application of the scientific concepts. The questions shall be of analytical nature where a candidate is expected to apply the scientific knowledge to arrive at the solution to the given scientific problem.
    Negative marking for wrong answers, wherever required, shall be applicable as per subject wise scheme of Exam.
    Examination fee:
    Examination Centres: Bangalore, Bhavnagar, Bhopal, Bhubaneshwar, Chandigarh, Chennai, Cochin, Delhi, Guntur, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Imphal, Jammu, Jamshedpur, Karaikudi, Kolkata, Lucknow, Nagpur, Pilani, Pune, Raipur, Roorkee, Srinagar, Thiruvananthapuram, Udaipur and Varanasi.

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    DBT BET 2019 Notification - Apply Online

    Biotech Students Don’t miss this exam!
     DBT JRF program was initiated in 2004 to provide fellowships for biotech students pursuing research in universities and / or research institutions in the country. Students are selected through online Biotechnology Eligibility Test (BET). 275 fellowships can be awarded every year. 
    Applications are invited from Indian nationals for the award of “DBT-Junior Research Fellowship” (DBT-JRF) for pursuing research in frontier areas of Biotechnology and Applied Biology.

    JRFs will be selected according to merit under two categories: Category I & II.

    Category I fellowship (Top 275 in number) are tenable in any University/Institute in India where the students can register for Ph.D.
    Category II students (100 in number) will be eligible to join any DBT sponsored Project and avail fellowship equivalent to NET/GATE qualifications as per DST Guidelines, subject to selection through institutional selection process. Fellowship will be co-terminus with the duration of project and institutional rules will be applicable. There will be no binding on PIs of DBT sponsored projects to select JRF/SRF for their projects from category II list. Selection in Category II will not entitle student for any fellowship from DBT-JRF program.
    For further details please visit Notification  .

    Exam Date: 14th April, 2019 at 10.00 am  1.00 pm  (Online Test)

    Exam Pattern of DBT BET JRF:

    Eligibility:  Students with M.Sc. / M.Tech / M.V.Sc. degree with Biotechnology in title of degree e.g. Biotechnology, specialization such as Agricultural, Animal / Veterinary, Medical, Marine, Industrial, Environmental, Pharmaceutical, Food, Bio-resources Biotechnology, “Biochemical Engineering, Bio-sciences and Biotechnology, Bioinformatics” and M.Sc. “Molecular & Human Genetics” and M.Sc. “Neuroscience” as well as B.Tech / B.E. in Biotechnology (4-year course after 10+2) recognized by UGC/AICTE are eligible for this examination.
     Remember: For lectureship eligibility still you have to qualify NET.
    Candidates with minimum 60% for general and OBC category (55% for SC/ST/PH) of the total marks (equivalent grade) are only eligible.
    For further details and to apply online please visit the URL Apply Online . 
    • Online registration will start on 20 th February 2019 
    • Date for date of examination  is 14 th April, 2019
    DBT-BET (category I) entitles a candidate for fellowship subject to Ph.D registration of the candidate in a recognized university or Institute in the country within 2 years. At present, very few institutes or universities allow B.Tech students to register for Ph.D. directly. Registration for Ph.D is candidate’s responsibility and NCCS or DBT have no role in this.

    Free DBT-BET-JRF Exam Preparation Resources
    Fellowship: The fellowship will be initially for a period of 3 years extendable for 2 more years based on performance. By the end of 2nd year, the performance of JRF will be assessed and will be upgraded to SRF. The fellowship for JRF/SRF will be @ Rs. 25,000/- or 28,000/- per month + HRA as per DST guidelines and research contingency of Rs. 30,000/- per year.
    Mode of selection: The candidates will be selected based on an online admission test, “Biotechnology Eligibility Test” (BET) to be conducted on 14th April, 2019 at 10.00 am-1.00 pm 

    Mode of application: Candidates should register and apply online in the prescribed application form available at the URL for more: Official Notification : DBT BET JRF 2019 

    First and foremost thing is to begin the preparation now on wards
    " Wishing the very Best "
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    What are the 3 types of Ecological Pyramids? A short simple Summary

    An ecological pyramid is a graphical representation designed to show the number, biomass and energy at each trophic levels of an ecosystem.
    What are the 3 types of Ecological Pyramids? A short simple Summary
    • It represents the trophic structure and function of ecosystem
    • First Described by Charles Elton in 1927
    • Also called as Eltonian pyramid, trophic pyramid, energy pyramid or food pyramid
    • In ecological pyramid, producers form the base and top consumers at the apex
    Three types of ecological pyramids are
    1. The Pyramid of numbers
    2. The pyramid of biomass
    3. The pyramid of energy
    1. The Pyramid of numbers
    The pyramid of number is a graphical representation to show the number of organisms at each trophic levels of an ecosystem.
    a) Upright pyramid: In majority of ecosystems, the pyramid is an upright pyramid
    The number of individuals at the trophic level decreases from the producer level to the top carnivores. Therefore, the base of the pyramid is broad and apex is pointed.
    The number of producers is high followed by herbivores then small number of carnivores.
    • Pyramid of numbers in different ecosystem
    • In cropland ecosystem: Crops-->Grasshoppers-->Frogs--->Snakes---> Hawks
    • In grassland ecosystem: Grasses-->Rabbit-->Fox--> Lion
    • In pond ecosystem: phytoplanktons-->Zooplanktons-->Small fishes--> Large fishes
    b) Inverted pyramid of numbers: In some ecosystem, the number of individuals at the trophic level increases from the producer level to the top carnivores. Therefore, the base of the pyramid is pointed and apex is broad forming an inverted pyramid
    Eg: Tree ecosystem and parasitic food chains:
    • Single tree--->many fruit eating birds---> numerous parasites on birds
    2. The Pyramid of Biomass
    • Biomass is the total dry weight of organisms in a given area
    • Expressed in joules per m2 or tonnes per hectare
    The pyramid of biomass is a graphical representation designed to show the biomass of organisms at each trophic levels of an ecosystem.
    a) Upright pyramid of biomass:
                In forest and grass land ecosystem, the biomass  decreases from lower to higher trophic level. So the pyramid of biomass is upright
    • In grassland ecosystem: Grasses-->mice-->snakes--> hawks
    • In forest ecosystem: plants (trees)-->rabbit-->Fox--> Lion
    b) Inverted Pyramid of Biomass: In pond ecosystem, the biomass of phytoplankton is very low compared to zoo plankton which is lower than small fishes and large fishes. The biomass increases from the producer level to the top carnivores. Therefore the base of the pyramid is pointed and apex is broad.
    • In pond ecosystem: Phytoplanktons-->Zooplanktons-->Small fishes--> Large fishes
    3. The Pyramid of Energy
    A graphical representation of the energy level and energy flow in different trophic levels of an ecosystem.
    • Expressed in Kcal/m2/year
    • In an ecosystem, energy flows from producer level to the consumer level
    • At each trophic level, 80-90% of energy is lost.
    • Energy flow is always uni-directional.
    • Pyramid of energy is always upright as energy always decreases from lower to higher trophic level. See Lindmanns 10% law
    • Maximum amount of energy is available for producer.
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    Structure of Collagen

    A typical collagen molecule is  long, stiff, extracellular structure in which three polypeptides are wound around one another in a rope like triple helix. The chains are held together by hydrogen bonds. Variations in the amino acid sequence of the alpha chain result in collagen molecules with slightly different properties.
    Structure of Collagen

    Type I,II and III collagens are fibrillar, a and are found in skin, tendon, bone cornea and blood vessels. Type IX and XII are fibril associated and are found in cartilage, tendon and ligaments. Type IV and VII from networks in basement membrane and beneath stratified squamous epithelia.

    Collagen is rich in glycine and proline. The glycine residues are part of a repeating sequence-Gly-X-Y-where X is frequently proline and Y is often hydroxyproline and hydroxyllysine.

    Hydroxyproline and hydroxyline result from the hydroxylation by specific hydroxylases of proline and lysine residues after their incorporation into alpha chains. The enzymes require ascorbic acid as a cofactor. The hydroxyl group of the hydroxylysine residues of collagen may be enzymatically glycosylated.

    The precursors of collagen alpha chains are formed in fibroblasts, osteoblasts and chondrobalsts, and travel via the endoplasmic reticulam and Golgi to the extracellular matrix. There, the N terminal and C terminal properties are removed by procollagen peptides. In some collagen, the collagen molecules self assemble into fibrils in which the adjacent triple helices are arranged in a staged pattern, each overlap ping its neighbor by a length approximately three quarters of a molecules. The triple helices are then cross linked, giving the fibrillar array great tensile strength.
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    Example of Collagen diseases

    Ehlers Danloas syndrome is a heterogenous group of generalized tissue disorders that result from inheritable defects in the metabolism of fibrillar collagen molecules. Symptoms can include stretchy skin, loose joints and vascular problems
    Osteogenesis imperfecta, also known as brittle bone syndrome is also a heterogenous group of inherited disorders involving mutations in the collagen genes themselves that is distinguished by bone that easily bend and fracture. Retarded wound healing and a rotated and twisted spine, leading to a humped back appearance, are common features of the disease.
    Scurvy (Vitamin C deficiency)
    Lathyrism - sweet pea contain a chemical  beta aminopropionitrate inhibit the lysyl oxidase preventing the cross linking of the tropocollagen molecules.
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