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CSIR UGC NET JRF 2019 Notification June

CSIR will hold   the Joint CSIR-UGC Test on 17th June, 2019 for determining the eligibility of the Indian National  candidates for the award of Junior Research Fellowships (JRF) and for determining eligibility for appointment of  Lecturers (NET) in certain subject areas falling under the faculty of Science & Technology. The award of Junior Research  Fellowship (JRF) to the successful eligible candidates will depend on their finding admission/placement in a university/  national laboratory/ institution of higher learning and research, as applicable.
CSIR UGC NET JRF June2018 Notification

Exam DateCSIR-UGC JRF NET :16th June, 2019.

Age Limit & Relaxation:
  • For Junior Research Fellowships  (JRF):Maximum 28 years as on 01-01-2019 (upper age limit may be relaxed up to 5 years in case of candidates belonging to SC/ST/OBC, Physically handicapped/Visually handicapped and female applicants).
  • For LS (NET): No upper age limit.
    Educational Qualification:
    • BS-4 years program/BE/BTech/BPharma/MBBS/Integrated BS-MS/MSc or equivalent degree with at least 55% marks for general and OBC (50% for SC/ST candidates, physically and Visually Handicapped candidates).
    • Candidates enrolled for M.Sc or having completed 10+2+3 years of the above qualifying examination are also eligible to apply in the above subject under the Result Awaited (RA) category on the condition that they complete the qualifying degree with requisite percentage of marks within the validity period of two years to
      avail the fellowship from the effective date of award.
      Such candidates will have to submit the attestation format (Given at the reverse of the application form) duly certified by the Head of the Department/Institute from where the candidate is appearing or has appeared.
    • BSc (Hons) or equivalent degree holders or students enrolled in Integrated MS-PhD program with at least 55% marks for general and OBC candidates; 50% marks for SC/ST candidates, physically and visually handicapped candidates are also eligible to apply.Candidates with bachelor’s degree, whether Science, engineering or any other discipline, will be eligible for fellowship only after getting registered/enrolled for PhD/Integrated PhD program within the validity period of two years.
    • The eligibility for lectureship of NET qualified candidates will be subject to fulfilling the criteria laid down by UGC. PhD degree holders who have passed Master’s degree prior to 19th September 1991, with at least 50% marks are eligible to apply for Lectureship only.
    The question paper shall be divided into three parts, (A, B & C) as per syllabus & Scheme of Exam.
    Part 'A' shall be common to all subjects including Engineering Sciences. This part shall contain questions pertaining to General Aptitude with emphasis on logical reasoning, graphical analysis, analytical and numerical ability, quantitative comparison, series formation, puzzles etc.
    Part 'B' shall contain subject-related conventional Multiple Choice questions (MCQs), generally covering the topics given in the syllabus.
    Part 'C' shall contain higher value questions that may test the candidate's knowledge of scientific concepts and/or application of the scientific concepts. The questions shall be of analytical nature where a candidate is expected to apply the scientific knowledge to arrive at the solution to the given scientific problem.
    Negative marking for wrong answers, wherever required, shall be applicable as per subject wise scheme of Exam.
    Examination fee:
    Examination Centres: Bangalore, Bhavnagar, Bhopal, Bhubaneshwar, Chandigarh, Chennai, Cochin, Delhi, Guntur, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Imphal, Jammu, Jamshedpur, Karaikudi, Kolkata, Lucknow, Nagpur, Pilani, Pune, Raipur, Roorkee, Srinagar, Thiruvananthapuram, Udaipur and Varanasi.

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    DBT BET 2019 Notification - Apply Online

    Biotech Students Don’t miss this exam!
     DBT JRF program was initiated in 2004 to provide fellowships for biotech students pursuing research in universities and / or research institutions in the country. Students are selected through online Biotechnology Eligibility Test (BET). 275 fellowships can be awarded every year. 
    Applications are invited from Indian nationals for the award of “DBT-Junior Research Fellowship” (DBT-JRF) for pursuing research in frontier areas of Biotechnology and Applied Biology.

    JRFs will be selected according to merit under two categories: Category I & II.

    Category I fellowship (Top 275 in number) are tenable in any University/Institute in India where the students can register for Ph.D.
    Category II students (100 in number) will be eligible to join any DBT sponsored Project and avail fellowship equivalent to NET/GATE qualifications as per DST Guidelines, subject to selection through institutional selection process. Fellowship will be co-terminus with the duration of project and institutional rules will be applicable. There will be no binding on PIs of DBT sponsored projects to select JRF/SRF for their projects from category II list. Selection in Category II will not entitle student for any fellowship from DBT-JRF program.
    For further details please visit Notification  .

    Exam Date: 14th April, 2019 at 10.00 am  1.00 pm  (Online Test)

    Exam Pattern of DBT BET JRF:

    Eligibility:  Students with M.Sc. / M.Tech / M.V.Sc. degree with Biotechnology in title of degree e.g. Biotechnology, specialization such as Agricultural, Animal / Veterinary, Medical, Marine, Industrial, Environmental, Pharmaceutical, Food, Bio-resources Biotechnology, “Biochemical Engineering, Bio-sciences and Biotechnology, Bioinformatics” and M.Sc. “Molecular & Human Genetics” and M.Sc. “Neuroscience” as well as B.Tech / B.E. in Biotechnology (4-year course after 10+2) recognized by UGC/AICTE are eligible for this examination.
     Remember: For lectureship eligibility still you have to qualify NET.
    Candidates with minimum 60% for general and OBC category (55% for SC/ST/PH) of the total marks (equivalent grade) are only eligible.
    For further details and to apply online please visit the URL Apply Online . 
    • Online registration will start on 20 th February 2019 
    • Date for date of examination  is 14 th April, 2019
    DBT-BET (category I) entitles a candidate for fellowship subject to Ph.D registration of the candidate in a recognized university or Institute in the country within 2 years. At present, very few institutes or universities allow B.Tech students to register for Ph.D. directly. Registration for Ph.D is candidate’s responsibility and NCCS or DBT have no role in this.

    Free DBT-BET-JRF Exam Preparation Resources
    Fellowship: The fellowship will be initially for a period of 3 years extendable for 2 more years based on performance. By the end of 2nd year, the performance of JRF will be assessed and will be upgraded to SRF. The fellowship for JRF/SRF will be @ Rs. 25,000/- or 28,000/- per month + HRA as per DST guidelines and research contingency of Rs. 30,000/- per year.
    Mode of selection: The candidates will be selected based on an online admission test, “Biotechnology Eligibility Test” (BET) to be conducted on 14th April, 2019 at 10.00 am-1.00 pm 

    Mode of application: Candidates should register and apply online in the prescribed application form available at the URL for more: Official Notification : DBT BET JRF 2019 

    First and foremost thing is to begin the preparation now on wards
    " Wishing the very Best "
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    What are the 3 types of Ecological Pyramids? A short simple Summary

    An ecological pyramid is a graphical representation designed to show the number, biomass and energy at each trophic levels of an ecosystem.
    What are the 3 types of Ecological Pyramids? A short simple Summary
    • It represents the trophic structure and function of ecosystem
    • First Described by Charles Elton in 1927
    • Also called as Eltonian pyramid, trophic pyramid, energy pyramid or food pyramid
    • In ecological pyramid, producers form the base and top consumers at the apex
    Three types of ecological pyramids are
    1. The Pyramid of numbers
    2. The pyramid of biomass
    3. The pyramid of energy
    1. The Pyramid of numbers
    The pyramid of number is a graphical representation to show the number of organisms at each trophic levels of an ecosystem.
    a) Upright pyramid: In majority of ecosystems, the pyramid is an upright pyramid
    The number of individuals at the trophic level decreases from the producer level to the top carnivores. Therefore, the base of the pyramid is broad and apex is pointed.
    The number of producers is high followed by herbivores then small number of carnivores.
    • Pyramid of numbers in different ecosystem
    • In cropland ecosystem: Crops-->Grasshoppers-->Frogs--->Snakes---> Hawks
    • In grassland ecosystem: Grasses-->Rabbit-->Fox--> Lion
    • In pond ecosystem: phytoplanktons-->Zooplanktons-->Small fishes--> Large fishes
    b) Inverted pyramid of numbers: In some ecosystem, the number of individuals at the trophic level increases from the producer level to the top carnivores. Therefore, the base of the pyramid is pointed and apex is broad forming an inverted pyramid
    Eg: Tree ecosystem and parasitic food chains:
    • Single tree--->many fruit eating birds---> numerous parasites on birds
    2. The Pyramid of Biomass
    • Biomass is the total dry weight of organisms in a given area
    • Expressed in joules per m2 or tonnes per hectare
    The pyramid of biomass is a graphical representation designed to show the biomass of organisms at each trophic levels of an ecosystem.
    a) Upright pyramid of biomass:
                In forest and grass land ecosystem, the biomass  decreases from lower to higher trophic level. So the pyramid of biomass is upright
    • In grassland ecosystem: Grasses-->mice-->snakes--> hawks
    • In forest ecosystem: plants (trees)-->rabbit-->Fox--> Lion
    b) Inverted Pyramid of Biomass: In pond ecosystem, the biomass of phytoplankton is very low compared to zoo plankton which is lower than small fishes and large fishes. The biomass increases from the producer level to the top carnivores. Therefore the base of the pyramid is pointed and apex is broad.
    • In pond ecosystem: Phytoplanktons-->Zooplanktons-->Small fishes--> Large fishes
    3. The Pyramid of Energy
    A graphical representation of the energy level and energy flow in different trophic levels of an ecosystem.
    • Expressed in Kcal/m2/year
    • In an ecosystem, energy flows from producer level to the consumer level
    • At each trophic level, 80-90% of energy is lost.
    • Energy flow is always uni-directional.
    • Pyramid of energy is always upright as energy always decreases from lower to higher trophic level. See Lindmanns 10% law
    • Maximum amount of energy is available for producer.
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    Structure of Collagen

    A typical collagen molecule is  long, stiff, extracellular structure in which three polypeptides are wound around one another in a rope like triple helix. The chains are held together by hydrogen bonds. Variations in the amino acid sequence of the alpha chain result in collagen molecules with slightly different properties.
    Structure of Collagen

    Type I,II and III collagens are fibrillar, a and are found in skin, tendon, bone cornea and blood vessels. Type IX and XII are fibril associated and are found in cartilage, tendon and ligaments. Type IV and VII from networks in basement membrane and beneath stratified squamous epithelia.

    Collagen is rich in glycine and proline. The glycine residues are part of a repeating sequence-Gly-X-Y-where X is frequently proline and Y is often hydroxyproline and hydroxyllysine.

    Hydroxyproline and hydroxyline result from the hydroxylation by specific hydroxylases of proline and lysine residues after their incorporation into alpha chains. The enzymes require ascorbic acid as a cofactor. The hydroxyl group of the hydroxylysine residues of collagen may be enzymatically glycosylated.

    The precursors of collagen alpha chains are formed in fibroblasts, osteoblasts and chondrobalsts, and travel via the endoplasmic reticulam and Golgi to the extracellular matrix. There, the N terminal and C terminal properties are removed by procollagen peptides. In some collagen, the collagen molecules self assemble into fibrils in which the adjacent triple helices are arranged in a staged pattern, each overlap ping its neighbor by a length approximately three quarters of a molecules. The triple helices are then cross linked, giving the fibrillar array great tensile strength.
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    Example of Collagen diseases

    Ehlers Danloas syndrome is a heterogenous group of generalized tissue disorders that result from inheritable defects in the metabolism of fibrillar collagen molecules. Symptoms can include stretchy skin, loose joints and vascular problems
    Osteogenesis imperfecta, also known as brittle bone syndrome is also a heterogenous group of inherited disorders involving mutations in the collagen genes themselves that is distinguished by bone that easily bend and fracture. Retarded wound healing and a rotated and twisted spine, leading to a humped back appearance, are common features of the disease.
    Scurvy (Vitamin C deficiency)
    Lathyrism - sweet pea contain a chemical  beta aminopropionitrate inhibit the lysyl oxidase preventing the cross linking of the tropocollagen molecules.
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    What are the 6 Major Chemical Bonds or Interactions In Proteins?

    6 Major chemical bonds in Proteins
    In this post let me  give you a quick summary of major bonds in Proteins.
    Proteins are biomolecules  made up of amino acids joined by peptide bond.
    Different types of bonds interactions in protein structure

    Bonds in protein:
    1. Peptide bond
    How is peptide bond formed in protein
    • Peptide bond is formed when a water  molecule is eliminated during a reaction between 
    • –NH2 (amino group) of one amino acid and –COOH (carboxyl group) of another.
    Peptide bond or amide bond Characteristics

    watch this video on peptide bond for more clarity of concept
    • Covalent bond that joins 2 amino acids
    • Dehydration synthesis: release of H2O
    • Partial double bond character: as shorter than a single bond
    • Rigid and planar: rotation around the bond is restricted
    • Trans configuration: less steric hindrances of adjacent amino acid side chains
    • Uncharged : only side chains and N and C terminals are charged.

    2. Disulfide bonds: covalent bond formed between Sulphur containing amino acid
    di sulphide bond formation in protein
    • It forms when the -SH groups of two cysteine residues are covalently linked as a dithiol by oxidation
    • It may be formed between different chains of amino acids or between different parts of the chain.
    • It provide some rigidity to the protein molecule.

    3. Hydrophobic Bond 
    Hydrophobic bond in protein formation
    • It is formed between two non polar groups or hydrophobic amino acids.
    • Hydrophobic bonding forms an interior, hydrophobic protein core, where most hydrophobic side chains can closely associate and are shielded from interactions with solvent water.
    • Most important driving force in protein folding

    4. Hydrogen Bond
    how is Hydrogen bond formed in protein
    • A hydrogen bond is the electromagnetic attractive interaction between polar molecules, in which hydrogen is bound to a highly electronegative atom, such as nitrogen, oxygen or fluorine. It is a weak bond.
    • Amino acids with side chain containing –OH, -NH2 etc participate in H-bonding
    5. Ionic Bond 
    How is ionic bond formed in protein
    • Ionic bond forms  due to attractive force between oppositely charged ionised groups. 
    • Refer the above figure where aspartic acid is negatively charged and lysine is positively charged
    • The Van der Waals force is a transient, weak electrical attraction of one atom for another. 
    • It is the sum total of all non covalent associations between electrically neutral molecules.
    Watch this video on bonds in proteins for better understanding. Thank you
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    What do Fungi and Animals have in Common?

    Similarities between Fungi and Animals
    5 Similarities between Fungi and Animals

    Definition: Fungi are microscopic or macroscopic, non-chlorophyllated, spore bearing, filamentous, heterotrophic thallophytes which reproduce asexually and sexually

    Animals are eukaryotic living organism that feeds on organic matter, typically having specialized sense organs and nervous system and able to respond rapidly to stimuli.

    Molecular phylogenetic studies revealed that fungi are more closely related to animals than plants
    1. Both fungi and animals are without chlorophyll

    2. Both are having heterotrophic mode of nutrition (not self synthesizers like plants)

    3. In both, the cells are eukaryotic with organelles like mitochondrion, ER, Golgi etc

    4. Both store carbohydrate as glycogen (reserve food)

    5. Both are having chitin; cell wall of fungus is primarily made up of chitin whereas in some animals, chitin is present in   the exoskeletal structures of insects, spiders and crustaceans.

    6. Generally both are multicellular (Exception: Yeast is unicellular fungus)
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    7 Major Steps of Scientific Method in Biology with explanation

    7 Major Steps of  Scientific Method in Biology
    Definition of Scientific Method
    Scientific method is an organized and systematized effort to gain knowledge that uses observation and experimentation to describe and explain nature or natural phenomenon. It includes collection of data through observation and experimentation and formulation and testing of hypothesis.
    Steps involved in a scientific method or research
    Watch a simple 5 minute video here
    7 Major Steps of  Scientific Method in Biology with explanation

    Step I: Define the problem through observation and by asking questions.
    Make an observation. Based on the observation, ask questions. Why, how, what?.  Preliminary answers to these questions will help you to define the problem.  The observation should be correct and repeatable. Observation can be direct using senses or indirect with the help of instruments.

    Step II: Research the problem or Review of literature
    Research the problem:  This step is often called as review of literature. It is the process of collecting all available information on the selected topic from available authentic sources. It includes research journals, books, periodicals etc. Review of literature will give the researcher a clear picture about the selected topic, helps in making good hypothesis and also helps in avoiding repetition of the work.

    Step III: Formulate a Hypothesis
    Based on review of literature, the researcher will formulate a hypothesis. Hypothesis is an educated guess, a possible answer or a predictive statement that can be tested by scientific methods or scientifically testable or measurable. This statement is based on our previous experience on the topic or based on existing knowledge (review of literature).
    Null Hypothesis
    ·         The null hypothesis is a hypothesis which the researcher tries to disprove, or nullify.
    ·         It is denoted by H0  
    ·         Accepting the null hypothesis suggest that researchers hypothesis needs revision

    Alternative Hypothesis
    ·         The alternative hypothesis is a hypothesis which the researcher tries to prove.
    ·         It is denoted by H1 
    ·         Accepting the alternate hypothesis proves that the researchers reasoning is true.

    Step IV: Test Hypothesis by conducting experiments.
    Here we have to design the experiment and execute the project. We often call the methodology adopted for conducting the experiment as procedure. It should be properly designed to get unbiased results. We need to determine the variables in the experiment
    A variable is any factor, trait, or condition that can have different values, change in variable influences the outcome of experimental research
    The variable is the factor you might measure in an experiment
    1. Independent variable: The variable that researcher changes or the researcher think it will affect the dependent variable
            2. Dependent variable: The variable that is affected by change  in independent variable
          3. Controlled variable: The variable that is kept constant or same throughout the experiment.
    If possible, the experiment should have a control group.
    Step V: Collect and record data. Data collection may be direct (using our senses) or indirect (using scientific instruments). 

    Step VI: Analyze and interpret data and draw conclusions.
    Analyze data using mathematical tools or statistical software like SPSS for finding out the significance of the result. At the end of the experiment, null hypothesis may be accepted or rejected. Accepting the null hypothesis suggest that researchers hypothesis needs revision

    Step VII: Report results or Publish the result. This includes preparation of report, scientific paper or presentation of results or publish it in scientific journals so that your finding is open to public. A theory is a hypothesis supported by large body of observation and experimental evidences. All scientific theories are subjected to revisions or modifications.
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