Antibiotics and Mode of Action

Antibiotics are  substances made in nature by various microorganisms that inhibit or kill other microorganisms.
Mode of action
1 Actinomycin D Prokaryotes An intercalating agent, binds to DNA especially in the GC region, thus inhibits RNA synthesis. At high concentration, it blocks DNA replication.

2 Anthrocyclins Prokaryotes Inhibits DNA replication and transcription.

3 Chloramphenicol Prokaryotes Prevents peptide bond formation by inhibiting peptidyl transferase

4 Cyclohexamide Eukaryotes Inhibits peptidyl transferase activity

5 Cephalosporin
Prokaryotic Inhibits cell wall formation
6 Erythromycin Prokaryotes Inhibits translocation of mRNA along ribosome.

7 Neomycin Prokaryotes Blocks t RNA-mRNA interaction

8 Penicillin
Prokaryotes Inhibits cell wall formation

9 Polymyxin Prokaryotes Membrane destruction

10 Puromycin Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Induces premature chain termination of a polypeptide

11 Rifampicin Prokaryotes Inhibits mRNA synthesis

12 Streptomycin Prokaryotes It changes the structure of 30S ribosomal unit which result in misreading of genetic codes of mRNA during translation
13 Tetracycline
(broad spectrum)
Prokaryotes Binds to 30S ribosomal subunit, thus prevents aminoacyl tRNA binding to the ribosome.

14. Novobiocin
  • It is an aminoglycoside antibiotic.
  • An antibiotic compound derived from Streptomyces niveus. 
  •  It binds to DNA gyrase, and blocks adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity.
  • An inhibitor of bacterial DNA gyrase
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