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Classification of Fungi - Phycomycetes, Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and Deuteromycetes

Many system of classification of fungi have been proposed by various mycologists. Classification are based on the following features.
·         Morphology and appearance of the fungus.
·         Morphology of reproductive structures.
·         Types of spores and method by which they are produced.
·         Nature of the life cycle.
·         Besides, physiological and biochemical features of fungi help in the classification.
I) According to the sepatation of the mycelium and on the basis of characteristic features of reproduction. 
a) Phycomycetes
b) Ascomycetes
c) Basidiomycetes
d) Deuteromycetes

a) Phycomycetes (The Lower Fungi)
Mycelium: A septate, Cenocytic
Asexual reproduction: Zoospores, Aplanospores, Chlamydospores, Sporangiospore
Sexual Reproduction: Isogamy, Oogamy
Fruiting body: Zygospore
Examples: Mucor, Rhizopus
b) Ascomycetes(Sac Fungi)

Mycelium:   branched and Septate
Asexual reproduction: Budding, Conidiospores or Conidia
Sexual Reproduction: Fusion of compatible nuclei. Ascospores formed in ascus

A linear, cylindrical, eight-spored ascus of Sordaria fimicola
A linear, cylindrical, eight-spored ascus of Sordaria fimicola
Fruiting body: Ascocarp (Cleistothecium, perithecium, apothecium)

Scarlet cups
Scarlet cups
 Examples: Yeast, Penicillium, Neurospora, cup fungi, edible morels
c)Basidiomycetes (Club Fungi) : Advanced group of fungi
Mycelium: Secondary, mycelium, dikaryotic
Asexual reproduction: Basidiospores, Oidia
Sexual Reproduction: Somatogamy, Basidiospores formed on sterigmata.
Fruiting body: Basidiocarp
Puff ball
Shelf Fungi                
Examples: Mushroom, Puff balls, bracket fungi, Agaricus, Polyporus, Puccinia, Ustilago
d)Deuteromycetes (Fungi Imperfecti): In these fungi only asexual method of reproduction  by means of conidia has been observed. Perfect or sexual stages are absent. Hence they are grouped under an artificial group called fungi imperfecti.

Mycelium: Branched, septate mycelium
Asexual reproduction: Conidia
Sexual Reproduction: Absent or not known
Fruiting body: Absent
Examples: Fusarium, Collectotrichum, Pyricularia, Cercospora

II) Classification of fungi is based largely on the particular life cycle involved.
·         Zygomycetes
·         Ascomycetes 
·         Basidiomycetes
·         Deuteromycetes
a)Zygomycetes(The Conjugation Fungi): Primitive group of fungi

Mycelium: Branched, filamentous and coenocytic hyphae.
Asexual reproduction: Non motile sporangiospores
Sexual reproduction: Take place by means of gametangial copulation.
Resting spore or zygospore is formed by the fusion of two gametangia
Zygospore of Rhizopus
Examples: Common bread mould, Rhizopus, Mucor
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