i) Cell (Plant cell vs Animal cell)
- Cell wall: The plant cells have cell wall made of cellulose outside the plasma membrane
- Chloroplast: Plants are green in colour due to the presence of chlorophyll in the chloroplast.
- Vacuoles: Plant cells have large vacuoles filled with sap.
- Centrosome: Centrosome with centrioles absent.
- Cell wall is absent and only plasma membrane is present.
- Chloroplasts are absent in animal cells. Animals have no chlorophyll.
- Vacuoles are absent.
- Centrioles with centrioles present.
- Plants: Plants manufacture their own food (autotrophs) with help of carbondioxide and water in the presence of chlorophyll and sunlight. Non green plants are exceptions.
- Animals:Animals cannot manufacture their on food (heterotrophs). They depend on plants or other animals for their food. Euglena is an exception.
iii) Stored food
- Plants:Plants need no digestive system as they synthesize their own food.They store carbohydrate in the form of Starch.
- Animals: Animals have digestive system to digest the food before it is absorbed by the alimentary canal.They store carbohydrate in the form of Glycogen.
- Plants: Fixed in the soil (Except Algae like- Chlamydomonas, Volvox) But organs like leaves and bud do show slight movements.
- Animals: They move around for food (except-Corals and Sponges).The organs make movement.
- Plants: The meristematic zones present in the tips of the root and stem divide and growth take place throughout life (indeterminate growth).
- Animals: No meristematic zones, the various organs and the organs as a whole grow up to a limit (determinate growth
- Plants: Exchange of gases takes place through stomata.
- Animals: Have respiration through their skin, lungs, gills etc. Some use O2 of the air while others use oxygen of the surrounding water
- Plants: They secrete harmless products which are stored in their bodies.
- Animals: They excrete ammonia, urea, uric acid and other wastes which get eliminated through excretory systems.
- Plants: They reproduce asexually (by spores) and vegetative methods (spores and vegetative methods)
- Animals: They reproduce by asexual and sexual method of reproduction. The anomaly belonging to lower groups like Amoeba reproduce by only asexual methods
- Plants: They do not have nervous system and sense organs. So, the responses to stimuli like touch, light, are slow.
- Animals: They have the nervous system and sense organs. The response to stimuli are quick.