Golgi apparatus or golgi complex is a cytoplasmic organelle of smooth membranes sac or cisternae, tubules and vesicles. Golgi apparatus is named from Camillo Golgi who discovered it in 1898 in the nerve cells of barn owl and cat by means of impregnation method. The golgi apparatus is the processing, packaging and secretion organelle of the cell. It is found in all eukaryotic cells with the exception of mammalian erythrocytes, sieve tube elements. Prokaryotic cell do not contain the apparatus. In plants golgi apparatus is formed of a number of unconnected units called dictyosomes.
Shape and size of Golgi complex is largely dependent upon type of cell and its physiological state. It is small in muscle cell but it is well developed in secretary cells. Further, it can be compact stack of fenestrated saccules or a diffuse network of lamellae. It posses four types of components: cisternae, tubules, vesicles and vacuoles.
Function of Golgi Bodies
Golgi body Functions
|Plant cells||Secretion of protein and cellulose.|
|Exocrine cells of Pancreas||Secretion of Zymogen(Digestive enzymes-protease, lipase)|
|Goblet cells of intestinal mucosa||Secretion of mucus and Zymogens|
|Paneth cells of intestine||Secretion of proteins|
|Brunner’s gland cell or duodenum and ileum||Secretion of mucopolysaccharides.|
|Hepatic cells of liver||Transformation and secretion of lipids|
|Follicle cells of thyroid gland||Prothyroglobulins|
|Plasma cells of blood||Immunoglobulins|
|Cells of alveolar epithelium of mammary glands||Secretion of milk proteins|