Exam Capsule- Quick Revision Notes -Phycology (Algae)

Exam Capsule- Quick Revision Notes -Phycology
  •  Xanthophyceae – Oil
  • Chrysophyceae -Fat and leucosin
  • Mannitol and laminarin-Phaeophyceae
  • Bacillariophyceae -Fat and volutin
Thallus Structure in Algae -----

  • Many Rhodophyceae members can achieve high degree of thallus development. But some of them are unicellular.
  • Unicellular red algae : Porphyridium and Chroothece
  • Algal group containing oil, lipid and lucosin as the reserved food materials: Xanthophycophyta
  • Laminarin- Reserve food in Phaeophyceae
  • MOP Iyengar – Fampous Indian Phcologist
  • Sea lettuce: Ulva
  • Reticulate Chloroplast: Oedogonium, Spirogyra , Hydrodictyon.
  • Mitochondria are absent in Blue green algae
  • Alga with unbranched thallus: Zygnema
  • Pandorina belongs Volvocales
  • Palmella stage - Volvox
  • Gongrosira-Vaucheria
  • Chantansia- Bactrachospermum
  • Zygotic meiosis:Algae
  • In Euglena the effective stroke and the recovery stroke results in Forward movement associated with rotation around its axis
  • The mode of nutrition in Vorticella is Holozoic
  • Bioluminescence is usually associated with Pyrrophyta
  • Cyanobacteria form a variety of associations with bryophytes ranging from the almost accidental to close symbioses. Anthoceros ,the bryophyte that possesses this property
  • The exact role of the hetercysts in blue green algae? Nitrogen fixation
  • Green algal life cycle, where the somatic phase (plant) is haploid (gametophyte) while the diploid phase (sporophyte) is represented by zygote is called Haplontic,  found in. Ulothrix
  • algal division never produces motile, flagellated cells among any of its members: Rhodophyta
Classification of Algae by Fritsch

Economic Importance of Algae

  • Source of salad -Ulva
  • Source of iodine – Laminaria 
  • Material for photosynthesis research - Chlorella
  • To study nuclecytoplasmic interactions - Acetabularia
  • Carrageenin is obtained from the cell walls of algae:  Chondrus crispus (Irish moss)
  • Chlorella will fulfill the need of all vitamins except Ascorbic acid
  • Laminaria algae gives iodine
  • Agar-Gelidium, Graciliaria, Gigartina


  • Isogamy, Anisogamy and Oogamy are found in different species of Chlamydomonas.
  • Antheridia and archaegonia are Sexual microgametes of Chlamydomonas.


  • Asexual reproduction takes place by multi- flagellate zoospore, where flagella are arranged around the beak-like apical region.
  • Nannandrous species are always dioecious (heterothallic) i.e., antheridia and oogonia are borne on different filaments. In this type the antheridia develop on a very small filament termed as dwarf male or nannandrium.
  • The androspores, antherozoids and zoospores are morphologically alike but differ in their size and numbers


  • Polysiphonia, a red algae possess highly branched filaments each with a central axial filament supporting pericentral cells. The number of pericentral cells is 4–24.
  • The diploid zygote develops to become the carposporophyte, this is a separate phase of the life-cycle and is entirely parasitic on the female
  • The tetrasporophyte is diploid and produced spores in fours after meiosis
  • Branches of limited growth are called trichoblasts, spirally arranged, dichotomously branched, colourless and may develop both from main axis and long branches.
  • The diploid part of the cystocarp represents the carposporophyte. The carposporangium develops single diploid carpospores.
  • The non motile male spermatia are carried to the female by means of water currents in Polysiphonia

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