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Differences between DNA and RNA (DNA vs RNA)

Chromosomes are made up of nucleoproteins which constitute basic proteins and nucleic acids. Two kinds of nucleic acids are recognised. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and Ribonucleic acid (RNA). Nucleic acids are first reported by Friedrich Miescher (1871) from nuclei of pus cells. He called them as nuclein. Nuclein was renamed by Altman in 1889. 


DNA and RNA

Difference BetweenDNA and RNA

Serial No
DNA
RNA
1.

It usually occurs inside nucleus and some cell organelles.
(Mitochondria and Chloroplast in plants)

Very little RNA occurs inside the nucleus. Most of it is found in the cytoplasm.
2.
It is double stranded with exception of some viruses (e.g., Øx174)

It is single stranded with exception of some viruses (Reovirus)
3.
DNA contains over a million nucleotides
Depending on the type, RNA contains 70-12,000 nucleotides.
4.

The sugar portion of DNA is 2-deoxyribose

The sugar portion of RNA is ribose
5.
Purine and Pyrimidine bases are in equal in number.
There is no proportionality in between numbers of Purine and Pyrimidine bases.

6.
The base present in DNA are adenine (A), guanine (G) ,thymine (T) and cytosine (C)
The base present in RNA are adenine (A), guanine (G) , uracil (U) and cytosine (C)

7.
Hydrogen bonds are formed between complementary nitrogen bases of the opposite strands (A-T, C-G)

Base pairing through hydrogen bonds, occurs in the coiled parts.


8.
DNA is spirally twisted to produce a regular helix.
The strand may get folded at places to produce a secondary helix or pseudohelix.

9.

It replicates to form new DNA molecules

It cannot normally replicate itself.
10.

It occurs in the form of chromatin or chromosomes.

It occurs in ribosomes or forms association with ribosomes.
11.

The function of DNA is to transfer genetic information from one generation to the next.

The function of RNA is to direct synthesis of proteins in the body.
12.
DNA transcribes genetic information to RNA.
Its quantity is fixed for cell.

RNA translates the transcribed message for forming polypeptides.
 The quantity of RNA of a cell is variable.


13.
Renaturation after melting is slow.
It is quite fast
14.

DNA is only two types: intra nuclear and extra nuclear.

Three different types of RNA: m-RNA, t-RNA and r-RNA.
15.
It is long lived
Some RNAs are very short lived while others have somewhat longer life.




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