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Ti Plasmid based Vectors: Co-integrate and Binary vectors

Wild type Agrobacterium Ti plasmid cannot be used as gene cloning vectors because of

1) Large size of Ti plasmid; difficult to handle

2) presence of oncogenes or tumor causing genes (auxin and cytokinin)

3) lack of unique restriction sites and marker site within T-DNA

There ate two genetically engineered Ti plasmid based vectors. They are   Co-integrate vectors and binary vectors.

Making of Co-integrate vectors
In this strategy, both the T-DNA with our gene of interest and vir region are present in the same vector used for transformation.

At first; an intermediate vector is made using E.coli plasmid + vir region + T-DNA borders + origin of replication+pBR 322 sequences.

Second vector is a disarmed pTi vector = gene of interest+ some markers+pBR 322 sequences.

Both intermediate vector and disarmed pTi has some sequences in common (pBR 322 sequences).
Therefore by homologous recombination, co-integration of two plasmids will take place within Agrobacterium.

Now we have a cointegrate vector that has both T-DNA with our gene of interest with in the T-DNA borders and vir region. This complete vector is used for transformation eg:pGV2260.
Transformation of tobacco plant using Cointergrate vector
Transformation of tobacco plant using Cointergrate vector

Binary vector strategy: Two vector strategy

Here two vectors are used. This vector was devised based on the knowledge that vir region need not be in the same plasmid along with T-DNA for T DNA transfer.
Ti Plasmid
Help Ti Plasmid
binary vector
 Mini-Ti or micro Ti plasmid

Binary vector consists of a pair of plasmids

1) A disarmed Ti plsmid: This plasmid has T-DNA with gene of interest + ori for both E.coli and Agrobacterium. Also called as mini-Ti or micro Ti plasmid eg: Bin 19

2) Helper Ti plasmid has virulence region that mediates transfer of T-DNA in micro Ti plasmid to the plant.
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