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Five Kingdom Classification Proposed by R.H Whittaker (1969)

Criterion for classification: Proposed by  R.H Whittaker (1969)
a) Complexity of cell structure: prokaryotic and Eukaryotic
b) Complexity of organisms: Unicellular or multicellular
c) Mode of nutrition:
  • Plantae (autotrophs)
  • Fungi (heterotrophs and saprobic absorption
  • Animalia (heterotrophs and ingestion)
d) Life style:
  • Producers (Plantae)
  • Consumers (Animalia)
  • Decomposers (Fungi)
e) Phylogentic relationships: prokaryotes to eukaryotes, unicellular to multicellular organisms

1. Kingdom Monera :Bacteria, Cyano bacteria (Blue green algae)  
Cell structure: Unicelled prokaryotes
Nutrition: Absorptive or photosynthetic
Movement: By flagella (tubulin)
Reproduction: Asexual


2. Kingdom Protista (protozoans
Phytoplankton, Zooplankton )
Cell structure :Unicelled eukaryotes
Nutrition :Absorptive, photosynthetic
Movement :By flagella, cilia, streaming
Reproduction: Both asexual and sexual

3. Kingdom Fungi : Yeasts(Unicellular) moulds, mushrooms.
Multicelled eukaryotes
Cell structure :Chitinous cell wall
Nutrition :heterotrophic, Absorptive, Saprobic
Movement : Non-motile
Reproduction: Both asexual and sexual

4. Kingdom Plantae (Algae, Bryophytes, ferns, gymnosperms, Multicelled eukaryotes)
Cell structure: cellulosic cell wall, presence of plastids
Nutrition :Autotrophic
Movement :Non-motile
Reproduction :Both asexual and sexual

5. Kingdom Animalia (Sponges, Invertebrates, vertebrates ,Multicelled eukaryotes)
Cell structure :without cell wall, and plastids
Nutrition :Heterotrophic
Movement :Highly motile
Reproduction: Both asexual and sexual

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