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Kingdom Monera (Kingdom of Prokaryotes)

Includes all prokaryotic organisms. They are important decomposers and mineralizers.
E coli
E.coli Bacteria

  • Examples: Bacteria, actinomycetes Filamentous bacteria), Cyano bacteria (Blue green algae)
Monerans can be classified into three major groups:
a) Eubacteria (True Bacteria)
b) Cyanobacteria (Blue green algae)
c) Archaebacteria (Ancient bacteria)
Habit and Habitat:

  • They are commonly found in water, air, soil, and on living and dead organic matters.
  • Archae bacteria (ancient bacteria) live under extreme environmental conditions like high temperature(800C) , high salt conditions and in the absence of oxygen etc.
Structure:

  • They are microscopic without nucleus and other membrane  bound  organelles. Most of them have a rigid cell wall.
Nutrition:

  • Bacteria show two types of nutrition: Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
  • They prepare food materials using light energy (photo autotrophs) or energy released from chemical reactions (Chemoautotrophs)
  • Heterotrophic bacteria  may be parasitic, saprophytic and symbiotic in nature.
Reproduction:

  • Asexual methods (Binary Fission, Endospore formation).
  • Sexual Methods (Conjugation, transformation, Tranduction)

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