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Difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Transcription

Transcription: Process by which RNA is synthesised from a DNA template.

Difference between : Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic Transcription


Prokaryotic transcription
Prokaryotic Transcription

Eukaryotic transcription
Eukaryotic Transcription


1
Coupled transcription-translation is the rule.
Coupled transcription translation is not possible.
2
Occurs in the cytoplasm.
Occurs in the nucleus.
3
There is no definite phase for its occurrence.
Take place in the G1 and G2 phases of cell cycle.
4
A single RNA polymerase synthesises all the three types of RNA (mRNA, tRNA, rRNA)
The RNA polymerases I, II and III synthesizes rRNA, mRNA and tRNA respectively.
5
RNAs are released and processed in the cytoplasm.
RNAs are released and processes in the nucleus.
6
Initiation of transcription does not need any proteins or initiation factors.
Initiation of transcription requires proteins called transcription factors. These are TFIIA, TFIIB, TFIID, TFIIE, TFIIF AND TFIIH. These recognise TATA BOX.
7
Pre RNA molecules are released and processed in the cytoplasm.
Pre RNA are released and processed in the nucleus.
8
RNA polymerases are complexes of five polypeptides.
RNA polymerases are complexes of 10-15 polypeptides.
9
The mRNA primary transcript has fewer surplus nucleotides.
The mRNA primary transcript has a large number of surplus nucleotides.
10
Transcriptional unit has one or more genes (Polycistronic).
Transcriptional unit has only one gene (Monocistronic).
11.
Transcription and translation nearly simultaneous. Little process of mRNA
Processing of hnRNA includes:
·        Addition of 5’cap(7 methylguanosine)
·        Addition of 3’poly A tail.
12
The 23S, 16S and 5S rRNAs are formed from a single primary transcript.
The 28S, 18S, 5.8S and 5S rRNAS are formed from two primary transcripts.
13.
Rifampin: RNA polymerase binds to β subunit.
Actinomycin-Intercalates to interrupt transcription.
Inhibitors:
α amanitin: Inhibits RNA polymerase 2 most srongly
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