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Components Required for Protein Synthesis in Bacterial Cells

Protein synthesis
Stage I :  Binding of amino acid to tRNA
Building blocks of proteins

Deliver amino acids to ribosomes

Amino acyl t RNA synthetase
Attaches amino acids to t RNAs

Provides energy for binding amino acid to tRNA

Stage II : Initiation
Carries coding instructions

Provides first amino acid in peptide

30S ribosomal subunit
Attaches to mRNA

50S ribosomal subunit
Stabilizes tRNAs and amino acids

Initiation factor 1
Enhances dissociation of large and small subunits of ribosome.

Initiation factor 2
Binds GTP; delivers fMet-tRNAfmet  to initiation codon.

Initiation factor 3
Binds to 30 S subunit and prevents association with 50 S subunit.

Stage III : Elongation
70 s initiation complex
Functional ribosomes with A, P, and E sites and peptidyl transferase activity where protein synthesis takes place.
Charged tRNA s
Bringing amino acids to ribosome and help assemble them in order specified by mRNA.
Elongation factor Tu
Binds GTP and charged tRNA; delivers charged tRNA to A site.

Elongation factor Ts
Generates active elongation factor Tu.

Elongation factor G
Stimulates movement of ribosome to next codon.

Provides energy.

Peptidyl transferase
Creates peptide bond between amino acids in A site and P site.

Stage IV: Termination
Release factors 1, 2 and 3
Bind to ribosome when stop codon is reached and terminate translation.

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