HSST Zoology Syllabus - PG level Syllabus

HSST Zoology Syllabus - PG level Syllabus

SYLLABUS ZOOLOGY


MODULE I: SYSTEMATICS AND EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY

1. SYSTEMATICS

• Basic concepts , Importance and applications

• Trends -Chemotaxonomy, Cytotaxonomy, Molecular taxonomy, Cladistics, Numerical

taxonomy

• Dimensions of speciation, Species concept, Theories of biological classification, Hierarchy

of categories.

• Procedural keys- Taxonomic procedures- Collection, Preservation, Curating, Identification.

• Taxonomic keys- Merits and demerits; ICZN, Formation of scientific names of various taxa.

2. EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY

An outline of evolutionary theories: Darwinism, Lamarckism, Modern synthesis (not in

detail).

Origin of higher categories- Punctuated equilibrium- Macroevolution- MicroevolutionCoevolution-Founder principle- C-value paradox-Concept of molecular clockCytochrome C- Haemoglobin-Histone.

MODULE II: PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY.

I. PHYSIOLOGY

1. Nutrition and Digestion

• Types of nutrition

• Mechanism of Digestion , Absorption

• Gastro intestinal hormones

• Deficiency diseases of nutrients.

2. Circulatory Physiology

• Physiology of cardiac muscles

• cardiac cycle

• Electrical properties

• conducting system of heart

• Blood pressure

• Blood volume

• pressure control - integrated system.

3. Nerve Physiology

• Nerve action potential

• conduction of nerve impulse

• Synapse

• Synaptic transmission

• Neurotransmitters.

4. Excretory physiology

5. Respiratory physiology

6. Muscle physiology

7. Endocrinology

• Major Endocrine glands and their hormones and functions

• Mechanism of hormone action.

II. BIOCHEMISTRY

Biomolecules

• Carbohydrates: Classification, Structure, Properties, Functions.

• Proteins: Classification, Structure, Properties, Functions.

• Lipids: Classification, Structure, Properties, functions.

Enzymes: Mechanism of enzyme action. Factors affecting enzyme action, Enzyme kinetics, MentonMichaelis kinetics, Substrate concentration, Enzyme inhibition and regulation, Isozyme, Coenzyme,

Ribozymes.

Metabolism of carbohydrate: Glycolysis, TCA cycle, Pentose phosphate pathway, Glycogenesis,

Glucogenesis, Gluconeogenesis, Regulation of carbohydrate metabolism.

Metabolism of protein: Deamination, Transamination,

Metabolism of Lipids: B oxidation, Synthesis of Fatty acid, Biosynthesis of

cholesterol.

Energy metabolism: Oxidative metabolism, Oxidative phosphorylation,

Chemiosmotic theory .

MODULE III: MICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY

I. MICROBIOLOGY

• Classification of Microorganisms- Berg's manual.

• Salient features of Bacteria, Viruses, Fungi, Protozoa, Algae.

• Bacterial Cell- Structure and function

• Bacterial Cell wall- Peptidoglycan, Gram's positive and Gram's negative, Mechanism of Gram's

staining.

• Bacterial culture media

• Growth curves

2. Industrial Microbiology: Fermentation.

II: IMMUNOLOGY

• Types of immunity - Innate, Acquired, Passive, Active, Cell mediated.

• Cells of primary and secondary lymphoid organs.

• Cells and organs of immune system.

III. Immunogens [ Antigen]

• General properties- Structure and function, Variability and Diversity.

• Factors affecting antigenicity

• Epitopes and haptens

• Adjuvants.

IV. Immunoglobulins [Antibodies]

• General properties- Structure and function

• Different classes- Ig A, IgD, IgE, IgM

• Variability and Diversity

• Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies

V. Antigen Antibody interaction

 Complement system- Classical pathway, Alternate, cell mediated and humoral reactions.

VI. Transplantation

MHC genes, Auto-immune diseases.

MODULE IV CELL, MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY

CELL

Cell membrane- Structure and function.

Cell organelles with special reference to Mitochondria and Ribosomes

MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

• Organization of eukaryotic genome, gene content and genomic size complexity of eukaryotic

genome, conserved exons and recombination

• DNA replication , Repair and Recombination

• Prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA replication. Enzyme involved in replication. DNA damage and

repair.

• Transcription and RNA processing

• Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic transcription, Binding of transcription

complexes, Post -transcriptional processing .

• Translation- prokaryotic and eukaryotic gene expression, Translational machinery, mechanism

of initiation, elongation and termination, Post-translational modification of protein.

• Gene regulation mechanism in Prokaryotes, Eukaryotes

• Transcriptional signals-TATA, CAAT box, Enhancers.

A. BIOTECHNOLOGY

Gene cloning.

• Major steps in cloning, Isolation and purification of genes.

• Vectors- properties of an ideal vector, different types [ plasmids, Ti plasmid, bacteriophages, cosmids,

phagemids, artificial chromosomes].

• Enzymes in gene cloning.

• Probes and molecular markers [RFLP, RAPD, AFLP].

• Homoploymer tailing, linkers and adapters.

BGenetic engineering techniques.

B1 Polymerase Chain reaction, DNA finger printing, Blotting techniques [ Northern,

Southern , Western blottings, Dot blot, Slot blot].

B2 DNA sequencing - Maxam-Gilbert method, Sanger-Coulson method. Chromosome

jumping, Genomic library and cDNA library, Site specific mutagenesis and gene targeting,

Human genome project, Human gene therapy, and other genome projects.

 B3 Transgenic animals.

MODULE V: GENETICS AND DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY

I. GENETICS.

• Mendelian principles of genetics- Laws , Linkage, Crossing over, Mutation, DNA,

Types of DNA, RNA, Types of RNA.

• Lyon hypothesis.

• Syndromes- Klinefelter, Down, Turner.

• Genetic code.

II. DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY

• Gametogenesis, Fertilization and early development - Cleavage, Blastulation,

gastrulation, Organogeny.

• Experimental Embryology.

• Embryonic induction.

MODULE VI: ECOLOGY, ETHOLOGY , BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND BIOSTATISTICS

1. ECOLOGY:

Definitions- Habit and habitat, Ecological niche, Ecosystem, Population ecology, Community ecology,

Ecological succession, Pollution, Global warming.

2.ETHOLOGY

Learning behaviour, Communication behaviour, Motivation.

3.BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION

Biodiversity concept, status in India, Value, Loss and causes of loss.

Indices, Hot spots of Biodiversity.

In situ and Ex-situ conservation.

4.BIOSTATISTICS

Mean, Median, Mode, Standard deviation; Graphical representation of data.

BIOPHYSICS, BIOINFORMATICS AND COMPUTER APPLICATION

1. INSTRUMENTATION

• Scanning electron microscope, Transmission electron microscope

• Electrophoresis- Gel, PAGE, Agarose, 2D- Immunoelectrophoresis, Fluorescent

• HPLC, Flow cytometry

• NMR spectroscopy- Mass, Plasma , Atomic

• X-ray diffraction

• ELISA

2. BIOINFORMATICS

Proteomics, Genomics, Data bases - Primary and Secondary, Search engines.

Transgenic animals, Stem cell research, IPR, Carbon trading, Ecological foot printing, Treaties and protocols

related to climate change.

MODULE – VII

Recent developments in Zoology

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