PG Level Syllabus - HSST Botany Syllabus

PG Level Syllabus - HSST Botany Syllabus



1. Classification of algae - Fritsch and Smith

2. Recent trends in classifications

3. General features of algae - thallus organization, vegetation, sexual and asexual reproduction and life


4. Pattern of life cycle and salient features of the following classes: Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta,

Xanthophyta, Bacillariophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta

5. Economic importances of algae : Biofertilizers, Food industry, Industrial and medicinal

importances, algal bloom


1. Classification of fungi - Alexopoulos and Mims (1979), Ainsworth and Bisby (1983)

2. General features of fungi - thallus structure, cell wall structure, heterothallism, parasexuality and


3. Salient features of following classes- Myxomycota, Mastigomycota, Zygomycota, Ascomycota,

Basidiomycota and Deuteromycota

4. Fungal associations - symbiosis, saprophytism, mycorrhiza, endophytes, lichens

5. Economic importances of fungi - degradation of pesticides and wastes, decomposition of organic

matter, degradation of lignin, significances in medicine and industry, fungal toxins and human health


1. Principles of plant pathology - biotic and abiotic agents and various symptoms of plant diseases

2. Process of infection and defense mechanisms - enzymes, toxins, structural and biochemical defense


3. Disease management - chemical, biological and quarantine measures

4. Common diseases of crops in Kerala - paddy, coconut, rubber, arecanut, pepper, ginger, cardamom,

coffee and tea


1. General account on morphology, anatomy and life cycle of the following groups: Hepaticopsida,

Anthoceratopsida and Bryopsida

2. Origin, evolution and economic importances of bryophytes - indicators of pollution, horticulture,

medicine etc..


1. General account on morphology, anatomy and life cycle of the following groups -Psilopsida,

Psilotopsida, Lycopsida, Sphaenopsida and Pteropsida

2. Heterospory, seed habit, stelar evolution

3. Economic importances of pteridophytes - as biofertilizers, in horticulture, medicine, ecological

indicators, as weed, in food industry


1. General account on morphology, anatomy and life cycle of the following groups -cycadopsida,

coniferopsida and gnetopsida

2. Economic importances of gymnosperms


1. Bacteria: ultra structure, major groups, nutritional types and reproduction

2. Viruses: ultrastructure, major groups, nutritional types, replication

3. Brief account on phones, viroids, virions, mycoplasmas, interferons, actinomycetes, bacteriophages

4. Economic importances of microbes- in ecology, food, industry, medicine, agriculture and other



1. Geological time scale and evolution of plant groups

2. Types of fossilization

3. Fossil pteridophytes and gymnosperms



1.Tissues - meristem, secretory and excretory tissues, primary and secondary tissues

2. Anatomy of stem, root and leaf - both primary and secondary structure in stem and root

3. Anomalous secondary growth in dicot and monocot stems

4. Brief account of nodal anatomy, wood anatomy and floral anatomy


1. Tools in microtechnique -microscopy, micrometry, camera lucida, cryostat, microtomes (rotary and


2. Fixing, killing, dehydration, clearing, embedding, staining and mounting - reagents used in each step

3. Brief account on vital staining, double staining, whole mount, maceration and histochemical

tests for carbohydrates, proteins and lipids


1. Microsporogenesis and male gametophyte development

2. Megasporogenesis and embryosac development

3. Pollination, fertilization and embryogeny in both monocots and dicots

4. Endosperm types, polyembryony, parthenocarpy and apmixis


1. Ultrastructure of pollen wall, pollen morphology, - NPC system of classification of pollen apertures

2. Contributions of Dr. PKK. Nair to palynology

3. Palynology in relation to taxonomy

4. Aeropalynology and melittopalynology and pollen allergy


1. Methods in crop improvement and achievements - plant introduction, selection, mutation breeding,

polyploidy breeding and hybridization

2. Consequences of inbreeding, heterosis and incompatibility

3. Back cross breeding, resistance breeding (disease resistance and stress resistance), vertical and horizontal


4. Seed production and certification, major centres of crop production in India

5. Plant breeder's rights, national biodiversitypolicy

6. Methods of vegetative propagation of plants


1. Origin of life - theories of evolution, classical and modern

2. Speciation



1. Principles of taxonomy - plant nomenclature, taxonomic hierarchy, phylogeny of angiosperms, taxonomic


2. Classification systems - artificial, natural and phylogenetic

3. Interdisciplinary approaches to angiosperm systematic (anatomy, embryology, morphology, cytology,

palynology, chemotaxonomy, numerical taxonomy, molecular taxonomy)

4. Study of the following families and their characteristic features: Ranunculaceae, Magnoliaceae,

Capparidaceae, Polygalaceae, Cryophyllaceae, Malvaceae, Leguminosae, Myrtaceae, Melastomaceae,

Cucurbitaceae, Rubiaceae, Asteraceae, Asclepiadaceae, Boraginaceae, Lamiaceae, Amaranthaceae,

Euphorbiaceae, Orchidaceae, Scitamineae, Liliaceae, Commelinaceae, Arecaceae, Araceae, Cyperaceae,



1. Flower as a modifiedshoot

2. Floral whorls and their parts - fruits and seed morphology

3. Vegetative morphology = leaf, root and stem


1. Common cereals, millets and pulses

2. Vegetables, spices, beverages crops

3. Timbers, fibres, sugar and oil yielding crops

4. Medicinal plants


1.Methods of ethnobotanical studies

2. Contributions of SK. Jain to ethnobotany

3. Common plants of ethnobotanical importance in Kerala

4. Sacred groves and their importance


1. Factors affecting plant distribution

2. Phytogeographic zones of India

3. Soil, climate and vegetation of India


1. Major and minor forest products with special reference to Kerala

2. Significances of forest on environment

3. Consequences of deforestation and industrialization


1. Habitat ecology - terrestrial, fresh water, wet land and marine

2. Population ecology - community ecology and ecological succession

3. Ecosystems - structure, function and types and biomes ,

4. Species interactions - competitions, herbivory, carnivory, symbiosis etc..

5. Biogeochemical cycles and environmental pollution - air, water and noise

6. Global environmental problems - ozone depletion, global warming, acid rain, nuclear hazards, Elnino, climate change,

7. Environmental impact assessment and major programmes - UNEP, IUCN, MAB, Earth Summit,




1. A brief account on structure, function of cells and cell organelles, - prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells,

cytoskeleton - organization and mobility

2. Origin, Ultrastructure and function of cell membrane, cell organelles

3. Chemistry of chromosome - DNA, RNA, kinetochore, NOR and constriction of


4. Numerical and structural variations of chromosomes

5. Cell divisions - stages, synaptonemal complexe, theories and mechanism of crossing over and

molecular mechanism of crossing over

6. Cell differentiation - characteristics and mechanisms

7. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA replication

8. Molecular nature of genes

9. Molecular tools for studying genes and gene activities

10. Techniques of DNA analysis - preparation of DNA and RNA probes, hybridization,

autoradiography, DNA finger printing

11. DNA sequencing, chemical synthesis of nucleotides

12. PCR and FISH and their applications


1. Mendelian genetics and gene interation

2. Linkage and crossing over, gene mapping

3. Polygenic inheritance

4. Extra chromosomal inheritanace

5. Microbial genetics - transduction, transformation and conjugation in bacteria, Lysogeny and lytic

cycle in viruses

6. Nucleic acids - DNA and RNA types, structure, function and replication

7. Mutations, DNA damage and repair

8. Genetic code and gene expressions - protein synthesis, gene regulations - prokaryotes and


9. Translation, post translation and post transcription

10. Gene synthesis - Khorana -Kornberg

11. Population genetics - Hardey-Weinberg equilibrium - genetic drift, genetic load, consanguinity and

its genetic effects

12. Human genetics - blood group systems - ABO, Rh and MN blood groups, human karyotype and

syndromes caused by its aberrations, genetic counseling, pedigree analysis

13. Brief account of human genome project



1. Water relation to plants - absorption and transpiration of water - opening and closing of stomata -

factors affecting water transport

2. Mineral nutrition - hydroponics, aeroponics

3. Nitrogen metabolism in plants

4. Photosynthesis - C3, C4 and CAM cycle in detail, photorespiration

5. Respiration - oxidative photophosphorylation

6. Ascent of sap - source and sink relationship

7. Growth and development - role of phytohormones, photoperiodism, vernalization, florigines

8. Stress physiology - water, salt, hot and cold stress - heat shock proteins, adaptations

9. Seed germination - physiological and biochemical changes


1. Carbohydrates - structure, function and metabolism, inter conversion

2. Lipids - structure, function and metabolism, biosynthesis of fatty acids, alpha and beta oxidation

3. Amino acids and proteins - structure and properties and classification of amino acids and proteins,

amino acid metabolism, Ramachandran plot, verification of proteins

4. Enzymes - major groups, relation of enzyme activity, enzyme kinetics, assay, regulation, allosteric

enzymes, isoenzymes, ribioenzymes, coenzymes

5. Vitamins - classification, function and sources of vitamins and their role as co-enzymes


1. pH and buffers

2. Microscopy - bright field, phase contrast, fluorescent and electron microscope (SEM and TEM),

photometry, colorimetry

3. Chromatogram - gel filteration, ion exchange, affinity, TLC, GC, HPLC, HPTLC, GCMS

4. Electrophoresis - AGE, PAGE, SDS-PAGE, isoelectrofocusing, ELISA

5. Centrifugation - density gradient and ultra centrifugation

6. Biophysical methods for analysis of biopolymers - x-ray diffraction, fluorescent, NMR spectroscopy,

UV, visible and ESR spectroscopy, ORD/CD, atomic absorption and plasma emission spectroscopy

7. Radiation dosimetry, radioactive isotopes, autoradiography, Cerenkov radiation, liquid scintillation



1. Sampling methods and errors

2. Process and presentation of data - tables and graphs

3. Measures of central tendency - mean, median, mode

4. Measures of dispersion - range, quartile deviation, mean deviation, standard deviation and

coefficient of variations

5. Probability - basic concept, theorems

6. Experimental design - randomnized block, latin square

7. Tests of significance - T-tests, Chi-square, F-tests, ANOVA

8. Correlation and regression analysis



1. Plant tissue culture techniques - direct and indirect regeneration

2. Somatic cell genetics and somatic clonal variations

3. Somatic embryogenesis - artificial seeds, protoplast culture, somatic hybridization, impacts in plant


4. Haploid production- anther and ovule culture - applications

5. Production of secondary metabolites - cell immobilization - bioreactor technology, in vitro strategies

of germplasm conservation

6. Isolation of genomic and organellar DNA. Methods of gene identification - vector mediated and

vectorless PCR, genomioc and cDNA libraries

7. Gene transfer techniques - direct and indirect traspossors as vectors - gene silencing

8. DNA markers - RFLP, RAPD, AFLP and Antisense RNA

9. Blotting techniques - Northern, Southern and West

10. Transgenic biology - gene cloning and transformation technique in plants-gene targeting and

sequence tag

11. Genetically modified organisms and foods, social and ethical considerations, IPR issues, patents and



6. Introduction to data structures, data base concepts, tools for searching, homology searching

7. Application of databases in biology

8. Sequence databases .sequence comparison, structural databases, proteomics and genomics


9. Major bioinformatic resources - NCBI, EBI, EMBL, GENBANK, DDBJ, SWISSPROT, PDB

10. Tools in bioinformatics - BLAST, CLUSTAL -X, CLUSTAL-W, Phylip, GENSCAN

11. Applications of bioinformatics - transcriptomix, metabolomics, pharmacogenomics (brief account



1. Computer application in biology

2. Computer packages for biostatistics and numerical taxonomy

3. Hardware and software parts of a computer

4. Internet online biology resources, public library of sciences, online publications, electronic

journals and books


Recent developments in Botany


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