Unit I: Reproduction in organisms
 Reproduction,a characteristic feature ofallorganismsforcontinuation ofspecies; Modes of reproduction –Asexual and sexual;Asexual reproduction; Modes- Binary fission,sporulation, budding,gemmule,fragmentation;vegetativepropagationinplants. Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination–types, agencies and examples; Outbreedings devices; Pollen-Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events– Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes– apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance ofseed andfruitformation. Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis- spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementaryidea);Lactation (Elementaryidea). Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health and prevention ofsexually transmitted diseases(STD); Birth control- Need and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness).

Unit II: Genetics and Evolution
 Heredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism– Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenicinheritance; Chromosome theoryofinheritance;Chromosomesandgenes;Sexdetermination–Inhumans,birds,honeybee;Linkage andcrossing over; Sex linked inheritance- Haemophilia, Colour blindness;Mendelian disorders in humans– Thalassemia; Chromosomal disordersin humans;Down’ssyndrome, Turner’s andKlinefelter’ssyndromes. MolecularBasisofInheritance:SearchforgeneticmaterialandDNAasgeneticmaterial;Structureof DNAand RNA; DNApackaging; DNAreplication;Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code,translation;Geneexpressionand regulation–Lac Operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA fingerprinting. Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (Paleontological, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution; Mechanismof evolution–Variation(Mutation andRecombination) andNatural Selection with examples, types of natural selection;Geneflowandgeneticdirft;Hardy-Weinberg’sprinciple;Adaptive Radiation;Humanevolution.

Unit III: Biology and HumanWelfare
Health and Disease: Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis, Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm); Basic concepts of immunology–vaccines;Cancer, HIV and AIDs;Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse. Improvement in food production: Plant breeding, tissue culture,single cell protein, Biofortification;Apiculture and Animalhusbandry. Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generationandasbiocontrol agents andbiofertilizers.

Unit IV: Biotechnology and ItsApplications Principles andprocessofBiotechnology:Geneticengineering(RecombinantDNAtechnology). ApplicationofBiotechnologyinhealthandagriculture:Humaninsulinandvaccineproduction,genetherapy; Geneticallymodifiedorganisms-Bt crops;TransgenicAnimals;Biosafetyissues–Biopiracyandpatents. 

Unit V: Ecology and Environment 
Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche; Population and ecological adaptations; Populationinteractions– mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes–growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution. Ecosystems: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids of number,biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous); Ecologicalsuccession; EcologicalServices– Carbon fixation, pollination,oxygenrelease. Biodiversityand its conservation:Concept ofBiodiversity;Patterns ofBiodiversity;Importance ofBiodiversity;Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves,National parks and sanctuaries. Environmental issues:Air pollution and its control;Water pollution and its control;Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste management; Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect and globalwarming;Ozone depletion; Deforestation; Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.

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