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11 Different Types of RNA in a Cell

RNA plays many crucial roles inside the cell along with DNA. Basically there are three main types of RNA in a cell.
1. mRNA or messenger RNA that codes for protein
2. rRNA which forms the ribosomes for protein synthesis
3. tRNA as adaptor which binds amino acids and rRNA and translates mRNA to proteins
Different types of RNA in a cell
But many other RNAs has a regulatory role or in processing of pre RNAs
4. snRNA (Small Nuclear RNA): forms snRNPs which is involved in mRNA processing by removing introns.
5. snoRNA (small nucleolar RNA) that forms snRNPs which is involved in maturation and assembly of ribosomal RNAs.
Function of snoRNA: rRNA processing mainly by methylation and pseudourydylation of pre rRNAs during ribosome formation in the nucleolus.
6. siRNA: small interfering RNA involved in RNA interference, a natural phenomenon double stranded RNAs lead to the degradation of mRNA with identical sequences.
siRNA is 21-23 nucleotide double stranded fragments formed for degradation of mRNAs with same sequence during RNA silencing or gene silencing.
Blocking viral replication and restricting the movement of mobile elements. dsRNA intermediates are involved in both processes.
7. hnRNA: heteronuclear RNA: High molecular weight RNAs (up to 50000 nucleotides), representing many different nucleotide sequences found in the nucleus. Include unprocessed pre mRNA with both introns and exons.
8. Catalytic RNAs or ribozymes: are called as ribozymes. Examples include peptidyl tranferase, spliceosome etc.
Know more on ribozymes
9. Telomerase RNA: RNA molecule that acts as a template for the addition of nucleotides to the 3’ end of the duplicating strand thus avoiding end replication problem.
10. gRNA: It is guide RNA needed for RNA editing, in removal and insertion of bases into mRNA, reported in some protists.
11. tmRNA: Transfer-messenger RNA (abbreviated tmRNA, also known as 10Sa RNA) is a bacterial RNA molecule with dual tRNA-like and messenger RNA-like properties.

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