AP Biology Free Response Questions

1. In humans, discuss the transport of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) by the blood and the exchange of these gases between the blood and cells of the body.Include in your discussion the cellular and fluid composition of the blood. AP biology exam
2. Many areas of North America that were once covered with many small lakes and ponds have undergone succession and are now continuously covered with forest. Give a detailed description of the events (biotic and abiotic factors) that lead to the establishment of a climax forest.
3. Describe in detail the process of meiosis as it occurs in an organism with a chromosome number of 4 (2n=4). Include labelled diagrams in your discussion. Indicate when and how each of the following occurs in meiosis.
4. In flowering plants, describe in detail the transport of water, carbohydrates, and inorganic solutes (nitrates, for example). Discuss the theories that have been proposed to explain how these substances are transported.
5. Discuss the significance of each of the events listed blow in the evolution of living things.
a. Primordial reducing atmosphere
b. Origin of photosynthesis
c. Increase in atmospheric oxygen and the development of the ozone layer.
d. Origin of eukaryotes
6. Define, discuss, and give an example of each of the following close interactions of species.
a. Predator - prey relationship
b. Commensalism
c. Mutualism
d. Parasitism
7. Define , discuss, and give an example of how each of the following isolating mechanisms contributes to speciation in organisms.
a. Geographical barriers
b. Ecological (including seasonal) isolation
c. Behavioral isolation
d. Polyploidy
8. Describe the structural arrangement and function of the membranes associated with each of the following eukaryotic organelles:
9.  Describe the structure and function of the mammalian kidney. Include a discussion of the regulation of water balance by kidney and hormonal interaction.
10. Describe the following mechanisms of response to foreign materials in the human body.
a. The antigen-antibody response to a skin graft from another person.
b. The reactions of the body leading to inflammation of a wound infected by bacteria.
11.  Describe the special relationship between the two terms in each of the following pairs.
a. Convergent evolution of organisms and Australia
b. Blood groups and genetic drift
c. Birds of prey and DDT
12. Define and explain the role of each of the following in social behavior:
a. Territoriality
b. Dominance hierarchies
c. Courtship behavior
13. A portion of a specific DNA molecule consists of the following sequence of nucleotide triplets: TAC GAA CTT GGG TCC .This DNA sequence codes for the following short polypeptide: methionine - leucine - glutamic acid - proline – arginine (1982)
a. Describe the steps in the synthesis of this polypeptide.
b. What would be the effect of a deletion or an addition in one of the DNA nucleotides?
c. What would be the effect of the nucleotides?
14. Describe the similarities and differences between the biochemical pathways of aerobic respiration and photosynthesis in eukaryotic cells. Include in your discussion the major reactions, the end products, and energy transfers.
15.In the life cycle of a fern and flowering plant, compare and contrast each of the following:
a. The gametophyte generation
b. Sperm transport and fertilization
c. Embryo protection
(Note: Answers must be in essay form. Outline form is not acceptable. Labelled diagrams may be used to supplement discussion, but in no case will a diagram alone suffice.)

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